• Vol 23, No 1 (2019)
  • Article

Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Short Grit Scale (Grit-S) for Malaysian Undergraduate Students

Chee-Seng Tan, Su Rou Low, Hoi Yan Chong, Shue Ling Chong, Anna Wen-Huey Ong, Poh Chua Siah, Shiau Fen Phang, Zhi Qi Ong, Wei Hong Tan, Jean Ann Wong, Wei Him Lew


Publish at : 31 Jul 2019
Hubs-Asia : Hubs-Asia Vol 23, No 1 (2019)
DOI : 10.7454/hubs.asia.2120519


Cite this article as:
Tan, C., Low, S.R., Chong, H.Y.., Chong, S.L., Ong, A.W., Siah, P.C., Phang, S.F.., Ong, Z.Q., Tan, W.H.., Wong, J.A., & Lew, W.H. (2019). Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Short Grit Scale (Grit-S) for Malaysian Undergraduate Students. Makara Human Behavior Studies In Asia, 23(1), 27-33. DOI:10.7454/hubs.asia.2120519
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Chee-Seng Tan ["Chee-Seng TAN(u9673u5b50u8056), PhD Assistant Professor Department of Psychology and Counselling PF-088, Faculty of Arts & Social Science Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak. Malaysia"]
Su Rou Low - Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Hoi Yan Chong - Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Shue Ling Chong - International Medical University
Anna Wen-Huey Ong - Center for American education, INTI International College Subang
Poh Chua Siah - Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Shiau Fen Phang - Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Zhi Qi Ong - Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Wei Hong Tan - Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Jean Ann Wong - Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Wei Him Lew - Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Email to Corresponding Author


The 8-item Short Grit Scale (Grit-S; Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) is a measure of the two aspects of grit: consistency of interests and perseverance of effort. While the majority of the past studies supported the two-factor model, some found cultural differences. Two studies were carried out to test the factor structure of the Grit-S in a sample of Malaysian undergraduate students (total N = 1109). Exploratory factor analysis (Study 1) revealed two factors. Item 2 for perseverance subscale was removed due to unsatisfactory factor loading. Further analysis of the seven items supported the two-factor model. Confirmatory factor analyses (Study 2) supported the superiority of the two correlated-factor model with 7 items. Moreover, the consistency and perseverance scores showed acceptable internal consistency. The current research contributes to the literature by lending further support to the theoretical two-factor structure of the Grit-S and revealing potential cultural differences in the items. Future studies are thus recommended to address these cultural differences and confirm the usability of the 7-item Grit-S in the Malaysian context.